Volume 3, Issue 2, March 2018, Page: 30-36
A Survival Analysis of Invasive Breast Cancer Patients with and Without in Situ Neoplasm
Karim Atashgar, Industrial Engineering Department, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Ayeh Sheikhaliyan, Industrial Engineering Department, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran, Iran
Mina Tajvidi, Radiotherapy and Oncology Department, Isfahan University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran
Received: Jun. 7, 2018;       Accepted: Jun. 25, 2018;       Published: Jul. 17, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ijssam.20180302.13      View  589      Downloads  23
Abstract
In situ neoplasm (or Carcinoma in situ (CIS)) is expression of malignant epithelial cells. This flat lesion is referred to as ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Considering neoplasm leads one to an effectiveness survival analysis compared to the case that neoplasm is not attended. The objective of this research is to analyze statistically survival of invasive breast cancer patients considering 1) with in situ neoplasm, and 2) without in situ neoplasm, and providing a comparative analysis. This study attempts to reveal that the both medical history (such as diabetes, hypertension, and internal glands disorders such as hypo- and hyperthyroidism) and extra capsular extension play important roles in the hazard function of a patient’s survival analysis. This statistical study indicates that 1) the survival rate of breast cancer patients with in situ neoplasm is more than one who is not initially supported by invasive carcinoma, and 2) in the case of existence of the both in situ neoplasm and invasive malignancy, after the 4th year, the life expectancy is increased compared to the one with only invasive malignant. The statistical analysis indicates that pathology type is recognized as a high hazard factor for a breast cancer patient.
Keywords
Survival Analysis, Invasive Breast Cancer, In Situ Neoplasm, Cox Regression
To cite this article
Karim Atashgar, Ayeh Sheikhaliyan, Mina Tajvidi, A Survival Analysis of Invasive Breast Cancer Patients with and Without in Situ Neoplasm, International Journal of Systems Science and Applied Mathematics. Vol. 3, No. 2, 2018, pp. 30-36. doi: 10.11648/j.ijssam.20180302.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Movahedi M, Haghighat SH, Khayamzadeh M, Moradi A, Ghanbari-Motlagh M, Mirzaei H, Akbari ME. Survival Rate of Breast Cancer Based on Geographical Variation in Iran, a National Study. Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal 2012; 14 (12): 798-804.
[2]
Anwar a I. F, Down S. K, Rizvi S, Farooq N, Burger A, Morgan A, Hussien M. I. Invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: Should this be regarded as a chronic disease? International Journal of Surgery 2010; (8): 346-352.
[3]
Bane A. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: What the Pathologist Needs to Know and Why”. International Journal of Breast Cancer 2013: 1-7.
[4]
Virnig B. A., Tuttle T. M., Kane R. L. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ of the Breast: A Systematic Review of Incidence, Treatment, and Outcomes. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2010; 102: 170–178.
[5]
Hajilou M, Alizadeh Otaghvar H. R, Mirmalek S. A, Yoosefi F, Khazrayi S, Tahery N, Jafari M. Ductal Carcinoma Insitu Breast: A Review Article, Iranian Journal of Surgery 2013; 21(1).
[6]
Narod S. A, Iqbal J., Giannakeas V., Sopik V., Sun P. Breast Cancer Mortality After a Diagnosis of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ. Journal of the American Medical Association Oncology 2015; 1 (7): 888-896.
[7]
Borgquist S, Zhou W, Jirström K, Amini R, Sollie T, Sørlie T, Blomqvist C, Butt S, Wärnberg F. The prognostic role of HER2 expression in ductal breast carcinoma in situ (DCIS); a population-based cohort study. Bio Medical Central Cancer 2015; 15: 1-10.
[8]
Margolese RG, Cecchini RS, Julian TB, Ganz PA, Costantino JP, Vallow LA, Albain KS, Whitworth PW, Cianfrocca ME, Brufsky AM, Gross HM, Soori GS, Hopkins JO, Fehrenbacher L, Sturtz K, Wozniak TF, Seay TE, Mamounas EP, Wolmark N. Anastrozole versus tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with ductal carcinoma in situ undergoing lumpectomy plus radiotherapy (NSABP B-35): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 clinical trial. Lancent 2016; 367(10021): 849- 856.
[9]
Atashgar K, Sheikhaliyan A, Tajvidi M, Molana S H, Jalaeian L. Survival Analysis of Breast Cancer Patients with Different Chronic Diseases Using Parametric and Semi-Parametric Approaches. Multidisciplinary Cancer Investigation 2018; 2(1): 26-32.
[10]
Anet G A, Nestor A M O. Application of hazard models for patients with breast cancer in Cuba. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 2011; 4(2): 148-156.
[11]
Colzani E, Liljegren A, Johansson AL. V, Adolfsson J, Hellborg H, Hall PF. L, Czene K. Prognosis of Patients With Breast Cancer: Causes of Death and Effects of Time Since Diagnosis, Age, and Tumor Characteristics. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2011; 29(30): 4014-4021.
[12]
Fardmal J, Mafi M, Sadighi-Pashaki A, Karami M, Roshanaei GH. Factors Affecting Survival in Breast Cancer Patients Referred to the Darol Aitam-e Mahdieh Center. Journal of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences 2014; 22: 105-115.
[13]
Abadi A, Yavari P, Dehghani-Arani M, Alavi-Majd H, Ghasemi E, Amanpour F, Bajdik C. Cox Models Survival Analysis Based on Breast Cancer Treatments. Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention 2014; 7(3): 124-129.
[14]
Elshof L E, Schaapveld M, Schmidt M K, Rutgers E J, van Leeuwen F E, Wesseling J. Subsequent risk of ipsilateral and contralateral invasive breast cancer after treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ: incidence and the effect of radiotherapy in a population-based cohort of 10,090 women. Breast Cancer Research Treatment 2016; 159: 553–563.
[15]
Li CI, Daling JR, Malone KE. Age-specific incidence rates of in situ breast carcinomas by histologic type, 1980 to 2001. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prevention 2005; 14(4): 1008–1011.
[16]
Rakovitch E, Nofech-Mozes S, Hanna W, Narod S, Thiruchelvam D, Saskin R, Spayne J, Taylor C, Paszat L. HER2/neu and Ki-67 expression predict non-invasive recurrence following breast-conserving therapy for ductal carcinoma in situ. British Journal of Cancer 2012; 106(6):1160-1165.
[17]
Usmani S, Khan HA, Al Saleh N, abu Huda F, Marafi F, Amanguno HG, Al Nafisi N, Al Kandari F. Selective approach to radionuclide-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy in high-risk ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast, Nuclear medicine communication 2011; 32(11): 1084-1087.
[18]
Page, D. L., Dupont, W. D., Rogers, L. W., Jensen, R. A., Schuyler, P. A. Continued local recurrence of carcinoma 15-25 years after a diagnosis of low grade ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast treated only by biopsy. Cancer 1995; 76: 1197-1200.
[19]
Page D. L., Dupont W. D., Rogers L. W., and Landenberger M. Intraductal carcinoma of the breast: follow-up after biopsy only. Cancer 1982; 49(4): 751–758.
[20]
Sanders, M. E., Schuyler, P. A., Dupont, W. D., Page, D. L. The natural history of low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast in women treated by biopsy only revealed over 30 years of long-term follow-up. Cancer 2005; 103: 2481-2484.
[21]
Atashgar K, Molana S. H, Biglarian A. Sheikhaliyan A. Analysis of Survival Data of Patient with Breast Cancer Using Cox Regression Model. Iranian Journal of Surgery 2016; 24(1): 62-76.
[22]
Choi HK, Cho N, Moon WK, Im SA, Han W, Noh DY. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of residual ductal carcinoma in situ following preoperative chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. European Journal of Radiology 2012; 81(4): 737-43.
[23]
Volinia S., Galasso M., Sana ME., Wise TF., Palatini J., Huebner K., Croce CM. Breast cancer signatures for invasiveness and prognosis defined by deep sequencing of microRNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2012; 109(8): 3024-3029.
[24]
Zhao X, Mirza S, Alshareeda A, Zhang Y, Gurumurthy CB, Bele A, Kim JH, Mohibi S, Goswami M, Lele SM, West W, Qiu F, Ellis IO, Rakha EA, Green AR, Band H, Band V. Overexpression of a novel cell cycle regulator ecdysoneless in breast cancer: a marker of poor prognosis in HER2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2012.
[25]
Jerez J. M, Franco L, Alba E, Llombart-Cussac A, Lluch A, Ribelles N, Muna´ rriz B, and Martı´n M. Improvement of breast cancer relapse prediction in high risk intervals using artificial neural networks. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 2005; 94: 265–272.
[26]
Klein J, Moeschberger M. Survival Analysis: Techniques for Censored and Truncated Data. 2nd ed. New York: Springer 2005.
[27]
Atashgar K, Sheikhaliyan A, Biglarian A. Reviewing and Analyzing Breast Cancer Survival Models. Iranian Journal of Surgery 2016; 24(3): 1-16.
[28]
Daugherty EC., Daugherty MR., Bogart JA, Shapiro A. Adjuvant Radiation Improves Survival in Older Women Following Breast-Conserving Surgery for Estrogen Receptore Negative Breast Cancer. Clinical Breast Cancer 2016; 16(6): 500-506.
[29]
Peng Y, Butt M B, Chen B, Zhang X, Tang P. Update on Immunohistochemical Analysis in Breast Lesions. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine Online 2017; 141(8):1033-1051.
[30]
Knuttel, Floortje M.; van der Velden, Bas H. M.; Loo, Claudette E. Prediction Model For Extensive Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Around Early-Stage Invasive Breast Cancer. Investigative Radiology 2016; 51(7):462-468.
[31]
Wu SG, Zhang WW, Sun JY, He ZY. Prognostic value of ductal carcinoma in situ component in invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database analysis. Cancer Management and Research 2018; 10: 527-534.
[32]
Fisher B., Land S., Mamounas E., Dignam J., Fisher E. R., and Wolmark N. Prevention of invasive breast cancer in women with ductal carcinoma in situ: an update of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project experience. Seminars in Oncology, August 2001, 28(4): 400–418.
[33]
Julien JP, Bijker N, Fentiman IS, Peterse JL, Delledonne V, Rouanet P, Avril A, Sylvester R, Mignolet F, Bartelink H, Van Dongen JA. Radiotherapy in breast-conserving treatment for ductal carcinoma in situ: first results of the EORTC randomised phase III trial 10853. The Lancet 2000; 355(9203): 528–533.
[34]
N. Bijker, P. Meijnen, J. L. Peterse et al., “Breast-conserving treatment with or without radiotherapy in ductal carcinoma-insitu: ten-year results of european organisation for research and treatment of cancer randomized phase III trial 10853—a study by the EORTC breast cancer cooperative group and EORTC radiotherapy group. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2006; 24(21): 3381–3387.
[35]
Ivanauskienë R, Gedminaitë J, Juozaitytë E, Vanagas G, Šimoliûnienë R, Padaiga. Survival of women with breast cancer in kaunas region, Lithuania. Medicina (Kaunas) 2011; 48: 272-276.
[36]
Gohari MR, Khodabakhshi R, Shahidi J, Moghadami Fard Z, Foadzi H, Soleimani F, Biglarian A. The impact of multiple recurrences in disease-free survival of breast cancer: an extended Cox model. Tumori 2012; 98: 428-33.
[37]
Parinyanitikul N, Lei X, Chavez-MacGregor M, Liu S, Mittendorf EA, Litton JK, Woodward W, Zhang AH, Hortobagyi GN, Valero V, Meric-Bernstam F, Gonzalez-Angulo AM. Receptor Status Change From Primary to Residual Breast Cancer After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Analysis of Survival Outcomes. Clinical Breast Cancer 2015; 15(2): 153-160.
Browse journals by subject